Terrestrial or epiphytic, acaulescent herbs. Roots numerous, fleshy, cylindrical, pilose. Rhizome upright or decumbent, with numerous, condensed internodes, sometimes inconspicuous. Leaves 3-8, forming a basal rosette, distinctly petiolate, present at flowering time; petioles narrow, channelled; blades elliptic, acute to acuminate, deep green. Inflorescence glabrous below, glabrous or shortly pubescent above, with several prominent bracts widely spaced; hairs simple, septate, flowers dense, showy, usually nodding to some degree; floral bracts prominent, glabrous, coloured like the perianth, usually bright yellow or in various tones of red or orangered, lanceolate, attenuate. Flowers scentless, tubular, bright yellow or the sepals and petals red or orange-red, the labellum usually somewhat paler. Dorsal sepal erect, lanceolate, slightly recurved at apex, subacute to rounded. Lateral sepals erect, keeled dorsally, connate up to about half their length, slightly inflated laterally at base, sometimes adherent to the dorsal sepal, obliquely oblong-lanceolate, obtuse-to obtuse-rounded. Petals erect, recurved near the apex, obliquely linear-oblanceolate to subfalcate, obtuse to rounded, sometimes marginally papillose. Labellum sessile, basally adnate to the lateral sepals forming a short nectary with the column foot; blade laterally adherent to the sides of the column to form a tunnel- like access to the nectary, near the base forming a narrow channel, more open above the middle, more or less lanceolate-sagittate when spread, rounded and sometimes slightly concave-cucullate at apex, with a retrorse, uncinate, rounded to obtuse fleshy basal auricle at each side of base; interior of the basal tunnel velutinous, the exterior glabrous or shortly pilose-papillose, apical margin crenulate- erose, sometimes provided with prominent, spherical papillae. Column subclavate, straight, ventrally convex and covered by cylindrical, one-celled, retrorse hairs, with a membranous, erose border limiting the clinandrium, column foot shorter than the column proper; anther lanceolate in outline, attenuate, concave; pollinarium long and narrow, formed by cleft, whitish pollinia and a ligulate, grey, sheathing viscidium; rostellar remnant a long, narrow, stiff point; stigma semiorbicular, entire, with slightly raised basal margin. Ovary glabrous to shortly pubescent (especially near the apex), cylindrical, slightly twisted. Capsule ellipsoid. (GS).
A genus of about four species distributed in the mountainous regions of Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. (GS).
Plants of Coccineorchis are terrestrial in leaf litter or epiphytic on tree trunks and branches with humus accumulation. They are found in cloud forests from about 800 to 3200 m. Flowering occurs almost throughout the year, the available records indicating all months from March to December. (GS).
All the species of Coccirzeorchis produce showy inflorescences with horticultural appeal. However, they are scarcely cultivated outside their countries of origin. It would be desirable to have propagated plants more widely available. (GS).
Plants of this genus can be cultivated in well-draining pots or baskets with a medium-coarse mix that includes a good proportion of humus and leaf litter. The plants seem to thrive in cool to moderately warm conditions depending on the species with good ventilation, subdued light, and continuous access to moisture. (GS).
Observations of the natural pollination of species of Coccirzeorchis are missing, but the combination of a nodding inflorescence with red, orange or yellow, long-tubular flowers with nectar at the base, and long, narrow pollinarium all indicate pollination by hummingbirds. (GS).