Annual or perennial, rhizomatous, glabrous herbs, emergent or with floating leaves, in fresh or brackish waters. Roots fibrous or tuberous. Rhizomes slender to stout. Leaves rosulate, linear, 1-severalveined, dorsiventrally flattened, terete, or unifacial, with open, sheathing base; sheath adnate to the blade, often remaining as fibrous cluster after the leaves have decayed, with 2 auricles; intravaginal scales present, membranous. Inflorescences ebracteate, terminal spikes or spikelike racemes, scapose or not; flowers all hermaphrodite, or pistillate at the base, hermaphrodite in the middle, and staminate (or lacking) distally on the inflorescence, trimerous, dimerous, or monomerous. Perfect and pistillate flowers hypogynous. Perianth mostly present, rarely absent; segments 6 or 1, in 1 or 2 whorls, when in 1 whorl, then with 1 segment adnate to anther, when in 2 whorls, then each whorl with 3 free segments; stamens antetepalous, 0, 1, 4, or 6, sessile or subsessile, when 4 or 6 in 2 whorls of2 or 3; anthers 2-thecate, dehiscing by longitudinal slits. Carpels 0,1,3, or 6, when 3 or 6, then coherent or weakly connate but separating when mature, or rarely apocarpous; locules of same number as carpels; stigma mostly sessile or on a short style, but the basal pistillate mostly sessile or on a short style, but the basal pistillate flowers of Lilaea with an elongate, filiform style; ovules 1-few per locule, erect, anatropous with basal placentation, in Maundia atropous and attached apically. Fruits achenes, rarely with hooks or horns at apex. Seeds solitary, exalbuminous; embryo straight.
A family of subcosmopolitan distribution with 4 genera and about 12 species.
Haynes, R.R., Les, D.H., Holm-Nielsen, L.B., Kubitzki, K., 1998. Juncaginaceae With kind permission from Springer Science+Business Media: This work is subject to copyright. All rights reserved, whether whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, broadcasting reproduction on microfilm or in any other way, and storage in data banks. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer-Verlag. Violations are liable for prosecution under German Copyright Law.